Genetic -

            There has been a lot reported on the effects of genetics on children's learning potential associated with the work of Plomin. In his book on  "Blueprint: How D.NA. Makes Us What We Are "  he explains the research undertaken with identical and fraternal twins, especially twins who were adopted by different families, illustrates that the twins share more  characteristics including intelligence with their natural parents than their doptedd ones. 

  Genetics explains the differences in children attainment. Certain single genes can have effect on certain conditions, but most characteristics and capabilities arise from cocktail of thousands of genes. Sue Garthercole et al in the Cambridge Institute of the Brain has contended that there is unlikely to ever be a remedy to resolve working memory problems, which are genetically determined.

      Plomin argues that there is nothing special about conditions like dyslexia. It is just a genetic variation. We are all in sense on the dyslexia scale. 

      Plomin also argues that formall education increases the genetic effect upon learning rather than closes it. The spread of working memory incrrases as children grow older. Those with higher working memory will achieve fluency more easily, thereby releasing more working memory capacity forlearning.

     Plomin explains that genes are inherited by each parent to create a new cocktail of them. Two intelligent parents may not necessarily create educated children. He contends that it is parents of average intelligence are most likely to create the most intelligent children.

Children Learning Potential

 The concept of height is simple to observe and understand.The genetic influence of height is 90%. Diets accounts for 10% of that development.

         The influence of genes on children's intelligence is around 50%. This means that there is 50% developed fromn.environmental influencess. It may be more appropriate to view it as doubling intelligence.

          There problem with assessing intelligence is now one knows what it really means. Every childs brain is unique in terms of its content. Two days intelligent children can have different attributes.

         What is most important is that genetics dictates that all children cannot learn as the same rates. Working memory also dictates this. This means that any given level of learning will be more difficult for children to achieve than othersm

         This does not mean that if children work exceptionally hard and continue working in adult education that they will  become able to become a Cambridge Universityy graduate. Genetics dictate the limits of what children can achieve. These cannot easily be defined.

        Catering for childrens individual learning needs create a significant problem in the school system, especially in hierarchical subjects like maths. There is no simple answer to the problem.