Reviewed Papers -  (Papers will be added)

John Sweller - Second Language Learning (Click)

 John Sweller, University of Australia, introduced the concept of cognitive overload, which is the process of assessing the load upon working memory. It is not an exact science. He advises in his researched paper that attempting to learn a subject content whilst learning a new language will cause cognitive overload.

       Fluency opens the working memory space available for thinking and learning wider. Children and adults will always learn more effectively in their most fluent language. This is a fact that cannot be disputed.

        Sweller qualifies his researched paper by claiming that young children can apply both simultaneously, but his use of the word 'how' they learn that is significant.

        Young children develop their native language skills thorough conscious face to face interactions with their parents, siblings and family. It is only semi-conscious in that their language is developed in the 'here and now', real applied everyday contexts, and they will not understand that they are learning a language, the process. Babies languages development commences with babbling. 

Sweller contends that adult must learn grammar and cannot learn through immersion. H.G. It is difficult for learners to indentify words in an unfamiliar langauge.

H.G. Swellers cognitive overload their has relevance to children's learning. The critical word in his paper is 'how' young children learn. Their native language skills are grown in contexts where parents off one to one, face to face support.


English Government Report into Early Language Learning 

  This Report that has been written by the Education Endowment Foundation and Public Health England. They claim that low vocabulary at school entry correlates with adult literacy at 34 years of age and mental health and employability. It argues there is some evidence this problem runs in families and twin studies illustrates high levels of hereditability.

 They suggest that the quality of input may be more important the quantity of it. It reports that 70% of preschool children with low language skills resolve them and 30% do not. 

Garthcole and Alloway (Click)

Classroom Guide - Detailed Report

  This is a publication on working memory for schools. It explains that working memory varies amongst people and is relatively fixed.  It explains the spread and growth of working memory as children grow older. It explains that some children have difficulty in retaining a simple instruction in their working memories

This Sweller Cognitive Overload (Click)

 Classroom Guide

  Cognitive overall is the study of how working memory can be overloaded.  It is not an exact science, but the more than the extraneous load, the load upon working memory that is not necessary for learning, the more working memory space will be available for learning.

H.G. Sadly, expecting children to learn and to be educated through the medium of Welsh is an extraneous load. It is not necessary for learning.