Video Review - hgunn

Readers are reminded that education and cognitive science are deep sciences and there are risks in considering these videos out of contexts

Dylan Wiliam - School Videos

    This is a fascinating videos provide fascinating insight to the realities at the pit face in a school in Hertfordshire. The video illustrated that the children were hooked on grades. There was also a riot when Dylan Wiliam advised that comment should be given instead of graded.

  The illustrates how perceptive children. They knew who were the most capable in their class.

        The most interesting feature of this video was Dylan Wiliam advised the class teacher to put children's names on lolipops stick, which she put into a tin, and she then pulled out names are random to answer the class questions. Some the sticks disappear. One of the sticks was Emily's, who the star of the class who tended to answer most question, she sheepisly in front of her mother that she had done so 'because she did not know all the answers'.

H.G. This illustrates that we are all human beings and we do not like getting questions wrong. This is effect children of lower ability most.


Sue Garthcole - Working Memory  - Vid xxx

 Sue Garfield Professor of the Brain Insitute explains working memory. She explains that are children's working memory is different and those with low working memory will struggle with learning.  She claims that it cannot be changed through training.

Sue Garthcole refers to a three fold increase in working memory capacity from 5 5 to 14 years of age. She refers to executive function having an influence on working memory like attention. She also raises the role of language upon it.

Value of Added Educational Measures with Reference to Genetics

          Bristol University in this paper argue that "A complete understanding about education is not possible without an understanding of genetics."  Educational attainment is influenced by thousands of genes. It argues that two third of the variation is not attributable to genetics.  

  They also suggest that educational attainment is not a singular construct that can be measured with a single score. Their research suggests that half the variance in examination scores in attributable to genetics. 

H.G. Genetics primarily dictate children potential, but nurture and work will influence their achieved attainment.

Bristol School of Cognitive Psychology         Vid 2      Vid 3    Vid 4

             These videos are extremely interesting. 

         They assert that there are three dimensions to working memory. Processing capacity, which can be worked out by calculating digit span, how many numbers the brain can  hold. Processing speed can be worked out by naming the colours of circle as quickly as possible.  Complex span uses digit span injected with fast naming of colours i.e. hold a number and then name a colour.

     They refer to three reasons for working memory problems arising. It arises because of low memory capacity,  slow processing speed and distractions.  They suggest that the ability to read relates to memorisation problems, while processing quickly, effectively relates to classroom behaviour.

V2.  Children may have specific visual memory problems. These children's can become frustrated. Children can have limited verbal spans. 

V3. Slower processes remember less because they are unlikely get distractions out of the way. Verbal distraction have a strong effect on people.

V4. Rhythm supports memory


Big Ideas in Nueroscinence - Langauge  - Vid

       Angela Friedrici argues that the faculty to acquire language is genetically predetermined by neural networks.

 The interesting feature of this video is that it is graphically illustrates how growth occurs in the brain, but also how distinct areas grow in specific types of white fibre  tracts in different types of languages spoken across the world.  She refers to the difference that exists in the brain in lifelong learners of English, German and Chinese. There are distinct observable differences.

       This video illustrates there are very distinct areas of the brain involved in micro language processes.


Swellet Mebourne Video

          Sweller argues that biologically primary information has developed over my generations, such speaking and listening. He claims that it includes skills like general problem solving, generalising and face recognition, which cannot be taught. People know how to do it.

          Sweller argues biologically secondary information is everything that is learnt in school, such as reading and writing. It is not picked up as easily as primary skills.  

  Most primarily skills, not all, are generic cognitive problem, constructing knowledge and generalising. What are taught in schools is domain specific skills. Children learning maths need to be able to solve problems generally, which is a primary skill, while learning algebra is specific set of problems, not general ones. It is domain specific. 

     Sweller claimed that developing of problem solving skills is important, but attempting to teach them is a waste of time. Domain specific skills needs to be explicitly taught. They will not be picked up subconsciously.

  Sweller refers to biologically second information as having a different cognitive architecture to biologically primary skills, such as that need for speaking and listening, and recognising faces. There is single cognitive architecture of the biologically secondary, domain specific information.  Its a natural processing system.

  He contends that the natural information store principle cannot function unless there is huge store information in long term memory. He contends that chess masters refer to configurations of chess moves in memory. They do not work them out. This applies to every topic that is taught to children. Information comes from people.

     We generate novel information through problem solving, we discover them. It is difficult and slow process. It is a random genesis process, effective for learning.

    Working memory dictates that when dealing with novel information that only limited information can be retained. About twenty seconds can be held in it, without rehearsal. It is limited in capacity and duration. It can call on information from long term memory.

     Worked example is less demanding of learning than problem solving.

Nueroscience and Education
 - Vid 

   Xx refers to genes having flavors, which blends with experience. It has an influence on the receptors grown. 

      Young babies are able to hear a whole range of language phonemes, but they learn to process the important ones through experience. They can detect error. They can also do simple maths. They will stare longer if they are shown two puppets after one is added or subtracted, for instance.

        He refers to a centre for phonemes, but also a visual centre that combines them into whole words. He suggests that teaching deprived children's parents how to support their children's learning will improve their reading development.


Todd Rose - The End of the Average- Vid  

Tedd Rose contends that there  is no such thing as average, it represents nobody. None of us are clones. He argues that there is no such thing as average geno,  cancer or performance, nor even how we memorise information.  All human traits cannot be summed up in a single statistics. Each person brain is unique as our faces.

      Tedd Rose argues that all human traits are jagged. He suggests the concept of traits such a self-control are insecure.  He contends that there is more than one pathway in terms of pace and sequence to success. There are multi-pathways to success.

 School and society is based on norms. He suggests there is no relationship between speed and ability. He does accept that there is a place for averages.

        Rose argues that the schools in United States does extremely poorly.

  He suggests there is need to clearly define outcomes i.e. what does a diploma really inform?


Robert Plomin - Genetics and Education - Vid  


      Robert Plomin argues that D.NA. difference  accounts for half of the children's performance in the National Curriculum assessments. From early school to A'Level 60% of children's educational performance is dictated by genes.

      He contends that clever parents on average will have clever children, but it not 100% herditable. He suggest that in every generation the best performing children will come from the parents of average potential, because genetics is concerned with mixing up genes. 

 Robert Plomin says that children are not moulds of clay that can be moulded into anything we want and that some children will find it difficult read. It is inappropriate to blame school, children and under performance.

 He arguing that education should be individualised.

Nuerosience - The Science of Learning - Educational Reform - Vid   

         Chris Corner suggests that the density of synapses from birth are over produced, but they are then pruned back and that the synapses become refined.

    Corner suggests that there many forms of the brains plasticity.

       When recall information from memory it is reconsolidated. It can be changed. 

        Cognitive, physical growth in the brain in one domain  may have a detrimental effect on other abilities, what is referred to as 'trade off'. Brain capacity is limited. Extra space is created in the brain when learners learn new languages.

 Children and teenage brains are distinct from adults. Trauma and stress effects learning .                                                              


How the Brain Learners to Read - Vid

Professor Deharne provides an interesting review of  the cognition of reading. It is illustrates how language is much more than a code.

          He refers to reading starting with the visual process, creating what to refer to the 'letter box' and that fibre links are made to the oral language centres. He claim that reading is not totally novel.  Reading links letters to sounds. He suggests introducing phonics is superior to whole word reading.

          Deharne contends that cursive writing is important in developing children reading ability. He also suggests that there is no evidence that reading cannot be learnt at an older age. (Switzerland expects readers to learn to read later).

        Deharne argued that that speed of learning to read depends on the language. English is the worst language to learn to learn to read in, because of the irregularities. It takes much longer to learn to read in it.
        He suggests in most languages children can learn to basically read in six months, but in English it takes another two years.

How the Brain Changes - Nuero Plasticity- Vid

This is an interesting review of the brains plasticity. It is argued that short-term learning makes chemical changes and longer term learning creates structural changes in the brain.

      Reference is being made to it taking 10,000 hours to learn a motor skill. It is suggests that this is a variable.                                    601810

Very young Children's Bilngual Education

This illustrates that very young babies have the potential to learn more than one language. The argument in this video illustrates that bilingual children develop cognitive processes that allow them to focus on each language. Learning two language does not cause interference.

      This is consistent with the synaptic pruning referred to earlier. The ability to recognise phonemes develops from birth.

 This video illustrates the important of language immersion from birth. Bilingual roots develops in families were both languages are spoken.

H.G. There is more specific evidence relating to this available.