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There is a Plenary
Professor Dylan Wiliam at The Schools Network - 2011

This an Excellent Overview How Educational Reforms have Failed

      This very interesting review by Dylan Wiliam illustrates that there have been a history of educational reforms and initiatives that has yielded very little change. All his videos are interesting.

      The comments made about streaming are very interesting.????Williams contends that where streaming occurs the higher groups are normally given the best teachers. He argues lower ability children suffer most from streaming. It must also be recognised that lower ability children require more skilled teaching, because learners with higher learning potential are more able to direct their own learning.

Sue Garthercole - Working Memory 


    Garthcole Cambridge University Explains Working Memory


Sue Garfield Professor of the Brain Insitute explains working memory. She explains that all children's working memory is different and those with low working memory will struggle to learning.  She claims that it cannot be changed through training.


Sue Garthcole refers to a three fold increase in working memory capacity from 5  to 14 years of age. She refers to executive function having an influence on working memory like attention. She also raises the role of language upon it.


Dylan Wiliam  Vid 1   Vid 2


  This Provides a Fascinating Insight into School Learning. 

  

   This is a fascinating videos provides an insight to the realities at the pit face in a school in Hertfordshire. The video illustrated that the children were hooked on grades. There was also a riot when Dylan Wiliam advised that the children should be given comments instead of graded

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  The illustrates how perceptive children are. They knew who were the most capable in their class.

        The most interesting feature of this video was when Dylan Wiliam advised the class teacher to put children's names on lolipop sticks, which she put into a tin, and she then pulled out them out so as to enable her to randomly ask children to answer them. 


          Some the sticks disappeared. One of the sticks was Emily's, who the star of the class who tended to answer most question, she sheepishly admitted to her in  front of her mother that she had done so 'because she did not know all the answers'.


H.G. This illustrates that we are all human beings and we do not like getting questions wrong. This is has an effect children of lower ability most.

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Why Teaching will Never be a Researched based Profession


This Explains the Complexity of Educational Research

      Dylan Wiliam defines educational researched-based practice that the majority of decisions that are made. If a study is based upon thirty children in a class it is not a random sample. There is the question of whether large scale research is large enough to have a reliable effect. The context of research also needs to be considered.


         Research suggests that setting improves the high performers at the expense of the lower performers. The pace of Set1 went too fast. The slower sets went too slowly.  The evidence has been that the higher performers had the best teacher.


         The problem with catch up as Wiliams claims is learners in low sets need to run harder to catch up who have always been running raster.
   

      Williams refers to fact that with  advice like feedback improves standards is that teachers do not always understand the purpose to the application of it has a negative effect. 


          Williams contends that judgement is important as much as science and thatnthere


Bristol School of Cognitive Psycholy.  Vid 2      Vid 3    Vid 4

The Videos Explain Working Memory Problems

             These videos are extremely interesting. 

         They assert that there are three dimensions to working memory. Processing capacity, which can be worked out by calculating digit span, how many numbers the brain can  hold. Processing speed can be worked out by naming the colours of circle as quickly as possible.  Complex span uses digit span injected with fast naming of colours i.e. hold a number and then name a colour.


     They refer to three reasons for working memory problems arising. It arises because of low memory capacity,  slow processing speed and distractions.  They suggest that the ability to read relates to memorisation problems, while processing quickly, effectively relates to classroom behaviour.


V2.  Children may have specific visual memory problems. These children's can become frustrated. Children can have limited verbal spans. 


V3. Slower processers remember less because they are unlikely get distractions out of the way. Verbal distraction have a strong effect on people.


V4. Rhythm supports memory

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Dylan Wiliam - Knowldge - Rich

This an Important Video on the Role of Knowledge in Education. 

    Dylan Wiliam refers to knowledge being much broader than the memorisation such a facts, Hr contents that cognitive science is illustrating that knowledge is fundamental to the development of expertise.  He quotes Sweller who suggests that novice use thinking skills experts use knowledge.


       It is important to learn to understand how all the facts fit together. The knowledge of experts knits them together.
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Dylan Wiliam - Pedagogy Trumps the Curriculum

        Dylan Wiliam explains that the curriculum that teachers teach will not be the curriculum that they are, were required to teach. He contends that the National curriculum was never really curriculum was never really a curriculum. It was the intended curriculum, that there was the implemented curriculum that text book writers wrote, and tge achieved curriculum that teachers delivered.


How children are taught is as significant as what is taught. One  bad curriculum taught well is better than a good curriculum taught badly.


Sweller Melbourne Video

This is a very interesting video


          Sweller argues that biologically primary information has developed over my generations, such as speaking and listening. He claims that it includes skills like general problem solving, generalising and face recognition, which cannot be taught. People know how to do it.


          Sweller argues biologically secondary information is everything that is learnt in school, such as reading and writing. It is not picked up as easily as primary skills.  


  Most primarily skills, not all, are generic cognitive problem, constructing knowledge and generalising. What are taught in schools is domain specific skills. Children learning maths need to be able to solve problems generally, which is a primary skill, while learning algebra is specific set of problems, not general ones.......?. It is domain specific. 


     Sweller claims that developing problem solving skills is important, but attempting to teach them is a waste of time. Domain specific skills needs to be explicitly taught. They will not be picked up subconsciously.


  Sweller refers to biologically second information as having a different cognitive architecture to biologically primary skills, such as that need for speaking and listening, and recognising faces. There is single cognitive architecture of the biologically secondary, domain specific information.  Its a natural processing system.


  He contends that the natural information store principle cannot function unless there is huge store information in long term memory. He contends that chess masters refer to configurations of chess moves in memory. They do not work them out. This applies to every topic that is taught to children. Information comes from people.


     We generate novel information through problem solving, we discover them. It is difficult and slow process. It is a random genesis process, effective for learning.


    Working memory dictates that when dealing with novel information that only limited information can be retained. About twenty seconds can be held in it, without rehearsal. It is limited in capacity and duration. It can call on information from long term memory.

     Worked example is less demanding of learning than problem solving.

Dylan Wiliam: Emotion and Learning

This recognises the Importance of Learning

        Dylan William explains that research illustrates that emotion precedes sensory processing. This means that there will be an emotional reaction to what they learn. This means that catering for children emotional needs is fundamental to developing their learning success.


          Williams contends that children should be taught to view their learning as a challenge, not simply a process of learning success and failure.


Todd Rose - The End of the Average- Vid  

This recognises that each of us are unique individual

Tedd Rose contends that there  is no such thing as average, it represents nobody. None of us are clones. He argues that there is no such thing as average geno,  cancer or performance, nor even how we memorise information.  All human traits cannot be summed up in a single statistics. Each person brain is unique as our faces.

      Tedd Rose argues that all human traits are jagged. He suggests the concept of traits such a self-control are insecure.  He contends that there is more than one pathway in terms of pace and sequence to success. There are multi-pathways to success.

 School and society is based on norms. He suggests there is no relationship between speed and ability. He does accept that there is a place for averages.

        Rose argues that the schools in United States does extremely poorly.

  He suggests there is need to clearly define outcomes i.e. what does a diploma really inform?

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Plomin - Intelligence

This is a very interesting Video

     Plomin argues that despite there being a whole range of types of intelligence, including verbal and non verbal tests, they correlate. He argues that 40% of the varies to g, which defines intelligence.


      Plomin claims that certain children will find it more difficult to learn than others and the influence of genes on intelligence is around 50%. As we grow older the influence of hereditary of intelligence increases developing from 20% in infancy to 80% in old age. He argues we chose environments to complement our genetic propensity, such as challenges.


        Plomin claims in terms of numeracy and literacy that 65% of the influence of genetics is hereditable. The heritability of intelligence and education attainment are not the same...


Performance vs Learning Dylan Wiliam

This recognises that each of us are unique individual

Dylan William makes the case that what is successfully learnt in a class, what can be viewed as performance, does not necessarily translate into successful retained long term memory. He refers to Sweller who contends that when children engage in problem solving they will not necessarily learn anything about problem solving.

       Williams also refers to Swellers research that if children are under loaded they will not learn and also if they are overloaded. This is due to working memory.

H.G.


This recognises that each of us are unique individual Robert Plomin - Genetics and Education - Vid


T
his recognises that each of us are unique individual

      Robert Plomin argues that D.NA. difference  accounts for half of the children's performance in the National Curriculum assessments. From early school to G.C.S.E. that 60% of children's educational performance is dictated by genes.

     He argues that charectoristics like height have 90 heridiarability. 

      He contends that clever parents on average will have cleveHerr children, but it not 100% heridtable. He suggest that in every generation the best performing children will come from the parents of average potential, because genetics is concerned with mixing up genes. It is a cocktail. Thousands of genes are involved.


 Robert Plomin says that children are not moulds of clay that can be moulded into anything we want and that some children will find it difficult read. It is inappropriate to blame school, children and under performance.

 He arguing that education should be individualised.

Dylan Wiliam - Assessment for Learning

This recognises that each of us are unique individual  

 

     Williams reflects on failed initiaves and contends that the standard of teaching is fundamental to developing children's learning success. He argues it does not matter which schools children go to, but it does matter what classes they are in.


      Williams claims that it terms of teaching there has been nothing new in 2,000 years. He argues that much cognitive neuroscience has no relevance to teaching, because teachers must teach 30 brains in a class.


Sue Garthercole - Diagnosis - Cognitive Development

 
his recognises that each of us are unique individual  

 
        There is a need to make sense of low attaining children's needs. There is no cure, magic pill for them.


        A study in 2010 illustrated that there was no change in children's maths and language attainment in the last 30 years. 18% of children require learning support. The 9 year spread of children in England 2015 Pisa scores is wider than the 7 year gap expected.

        Garthercole contents that 15% of children have working memory, which involves inattentiveness, but A.D.H.D. involves impulsiveness and hyperactivity. 

         Children's environment, social background has a profound influence upon children,s development of cognitive skills, which includes the development of crystalised knowledge, executive function, and also maths, language, vocabulary, .... control, emotional control, long term memory and I.Q.


       Measures of the children with high cognitive ability, who have high socio-e    economic status and low cognitive ability, who have high socio-economic status and low, over time illustrates that the low cognitive children with high socio-economic status, cross the children with high cognitive skills, buy low socio-economic
 status at about the age of ten
    

          Gathercole refers for the need for early intervention, especially phonological language support and that it may be too late four or five years later. She reviews conditions like dyslexia and A D.H.D. She claims that in these illnesses there are variations in individual children who have them. She claims rapid naming is a problem with reading and working memory is an integral part of verbal ability, and that working memory is the most reliable predictor of academic attainment.


       Finally, Garthercole contends that executive visual spatial working memory correlates with mathematical ability, and despite the fact that specific memory tasks can be trained, there is no evidence that working memory can be trained as a whole.

Plenary

 These video are all extremely interesting. Plomin research illustrates that 50% of children's educational potential is dictated by genes, while Sue Garhercole claims that there is no 'majic pill' for resolving low attaining children's learning difficulties, and that working memory cannot be changed.
        

  Although it has been a 'taboo' about admitting that all children potential is not equal, Dylan  Wiliam's visit to a Hertford School illustrates that children are constantly be branded like eggs. They are constantly been reminded of what they can and cannot do. Cloe illustrated that even intelligent, high attaining children, do not enjoy getting things wrong.


t.b.c.